Do genes play a role in affecting the sexual orientation of person? This question was answered when results of two studies revealed that five markers attached to DNA can affect the sexual orientation of a person. However, the results of these studies have been disputed by several researchers. Andrew Gelman, who is a statistician at Columbia University in New York, claimed that the results of the study have been incorrectly presented. This criticism has been disputed by Tuck Ngun who is the co-author of one of the studies. However, he has admitted that the study was underpowered and added that he and his collaborators will soon issue a statement.
The biology of sexual orientation of a person is one of the most hotly debated topics in human genetics. For the first time, studies have found a connection between markers attached to DNA and sexual orientation of a person. However, these markers can be influenced by external environment.
The studies provide strong evidence that genetics can have an impact on the sexual orientation of a person. For instance, when one identical twin is gay, there is a 20 percent chance that the other twin will also be gay. Since this rate is not 100 percent, it is assumed that environmental factors can have an impact on the sexual orientation of a person. An external factor that affects sexual orientation is the ‘Older Brother Effect’. It is believed that the chance of a man being gay increased by more than 30 percent for each older brother he has. Even though there are no studies to prove the existence of Older Brother Effect, many experts believe that this could be because of immune system reaction against male antigens which can affect foetus development.
To find out the link between genes and environment, geneticist Eric Viain conducted a study at University of California, Los Angeles. They studied the epi-genetic markers of the subject and tried to find the impact of the environment on these epi-markers. They collected DNA samples of 10 pairs of identical twins in which both were gay and 37 pairs in which only one twin was gay. When researchers scanned the epi-genomes of the gay twins, they found that 5 epi-markers were common among gays. Algorithm was developed based on these 5 epi-markers. This algo could correctly predict the sexual orientation of a person 67 percent of the time.
Limitations of this Study
Since this study took a small sample size of just 47 twins, the results of this study are likely to evaporate when test in a larger group. Another limitation of the study is that epigenetic markers present in the tissues of the body differ from those found in the brain. Since brain affects sexual orientation of person, researchers must study the epigenetic markers of the brain before coming to a conclusion
Critics of this study are of the view that just as genetic associations offer little insight into the sexual orientation of a person, little can be concluded from these epi-marks. These epi-marks are in regions that have not association with the gene of a person. For instance, one mark is associated with brain development, the second is located in the immune system, and the other 3 marks are in the areas that are not associated with any gene.
Most geneticists are of the view that genes have no impact on the sexual orientation of the person. Since, there are no ‘gay genes’, coming out with a conclusion that epi-marks affect the sexual orientation of the person may not be correct. The biggest study to find out the impact of genes on the sexual orientation of the person was conducted by Sanders. He took 409 pairs of gay brothers, including a few non-identical twins to find the effect of genes on sexual orientation of the person. They found that two areas of genome, namely chromosome 83 and X chromosome do impact the sexual orientation of a person. However, the exact impact of these chromosomes is yet to be determined.
Even thought the study conducted by Eric Viain is a step in the right direction, it is difficult to believe the findings of their study. There study appears incomplete and requires several changes before they can come to a definite conclusion. So do genes really affect the sexual orientation of person? We believe it does. However, there are limited studies to back our belief.
Wigs can work wonders for those with medical hair loss. If you have lost hair because you are undergoing chemotherapy treatments, you can get a wig until your treatment is complete and your hair grows back again. When you wear a wig, you feel more confident and beautiful.
People, who have thin hair or suffer from eczema dermatitis, can use wigs to look comfortable in their social circle. Today, wigs are very different from the heavy and uncomfortable wigs from the past. They are comfortable, lightweight, realistic, and painless to wear. Even though modern wigs have several advantages, you could face some problems when you wear them.
Here are some common problems people face when they use wigs.
If the wig is not worn properly, it can cause headaches. At times, wigs that don’t fit properly can put pressure on certain areas of the head which can cause frequent headaches. This is not a major problem and can be easily avoided by loosening the wig cap or changing the wig.
Another common problem associated with wearing wigs is that they can damage your hair. To avoid this problem, you must clean and condition your hair regularly. Secondly, take time to position you hair and wig. If you simply jam your hair under the wig, it will make your hair weak and increase the risk of breakage.
Prevents Hair Growth
Wearing synthetic-hair wigs can lead to several scalp health problems because it prevents it from getting the natural oil. This can make the scalp extremely dry. A dry scalp can be extremely painful and reduce the chances of new hair growth. If you want to avoid this problem, you must avoid wearing wigs continuously for several hours. When the scalp is exposed to fresh air, it prevents the scalp from drying.
Cause Permanent Damage
Lace face wigs are usually fixed using bonding glue or a spirit gum. When these products are applied to your hair repeatedly, it can thin out the edges of your hair and can even create patches at the hairline. This can permanently damage your hair and these effects cannot be reversed. Here is the experience of Countess Vaughn who wore wigs regularly:
If the wig is made using a material that you are allergic to, it can cause itchiness and can even damage your hair. To avoid this problem, you must buy good quality wigs that don’t contain harmful chemicals. These wigs are relatively expensive but they are worth their price.
The Science of Getting a Wig
So what are the points you should keep in mind when getting a wig? When you shop for a wig, you will find many varieties of wigs available in the marketplace. Some are expensive while others are relatively cheap. Most expensive wigs are high quality wigs that reduce the risk of allergies and diseases, and will remain beautiful for several years to come. So decide on the amount you want to spend when you go shopping for a wig. If you plan to use the wig occasionally, you can get away with an inexpensive wig. However, if you plan to use the wig regularly, you should get a good quality wig.
The way you plan to style your hair will also decide the wig you should buy. Synthetic-hair wigs cannot be permed, colored, or curled. So, if you plan to curl or style your hair, then avoid getting an inexpensive wig. Natural-hair wigs are a bit expensive, but they can be easily cut and curled.
If you plan to use your wig daily, you must look for wig hairpieces that are finely woven and light. This will allow the air to circulate through the wig and prevent dry scalp. They are also comfortable and reduce friction.
Taking Care of Your Scalp and Hair
Once you get a wig, you must learn to use it properly. Some of the things you can do to take care of your scalp and hair are:
Rinse the Wig Thoroughly
Make sure you rinse your wig thoroughly after washing it. If the wig is not rinsed thoroughly, it can leave conditioner or shampoo residue, which can cause scalp irritation.
Plan a Refresher
If you plan to wear the wig for the whole day, you must plan to refresh the scalp several times. You could carry organic witch-hazel with you and every few hours, go to a private place, remove your wig, take a wet cloth with witch hazel, and apply it on your scalp. This will prevent oil build up and make you comfortable. You could also carry an organic soothing gel to soothe the skin on your scalp and face.
Consider Using a Cotton Liner
You could use a cotton liner under your wig, which will help in absorbing heat and moisture and make you feel more comfortable. These cotton liners are inexpensive and can be easily bought from a wig shop or online store.
Care for your Wig
Frequent use of wig can increase wear and tear, which damage the strands of hair and can also cause itching. This problem can be avoided by taking care of the wig according to the manufacturer’s instruction.
Use Zinc Lotion
If you notice redness, bumps, and skin irritation after wearing the wig, you could try some organic zinc lotion. The antibacterial properties of zinc prevent irritation and skin infection.
You must be extremely careful when getting or using a wig. If you have sensitive skin, you should get a good quality wig that reduces the risk of skin irritation. People, who suffer from allergies or skin problems, must consult their dermatologist before getting a wig.